The immediate result of the 1971 war between India and Pakistan was the change of government in Pakistan and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the leader of the majority party in West Pakistan, took power on December 20, 1971. The 1971 war led to the dismemberment of East Pakistan. Pakistan had lost nearly 54 per cent of its population and 93,000 of its soldiers and civilians belonged to Indians. Therefore, the first challenges of the new government were to resolve the state of emergency and resolve the issue of prisoners of war as quickly as possible. India and Pakistan were in direct contact with each other through diplomatic channels after the war and both had recognized the need to start negotiations. From January 12, 1972 to April 30, 1972, the two countries showed their inclination to dialogue through press releases and talks were opened at the first level. Finally, it was agreed that talks between Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indra Gandhi would begin on June 28, 1972. The essential part of the agreement included Pakistani recognition of Bangladesh. Other topics discussed included the repatriation of refugees to India and the release of Bangladeshi and Pakistani nationals stranded in both countries.
Pakistan has agreed to accept an unknown number of Bihari Muslims from Bangladesh. Pakistan has also agreed to return to Bangladesh nearly 150,000 to 200,000 Bengali citizens of the new nation-state of Bangladesh. The Simla agreement was, therefore, according to the Indian Foreign Ministry, “much more than a peace treaty aimed at reversing the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. provoking the withdrawal of troops and an exchange of prisoners of war).” “This was a comprehensive plan for good-neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan. Under the Simla Agreement, the two countries pledged to renounce the conflicts and confrontations that had affected relations in the past and to work towards the creation of lasting peace, friendship and cooperation. Donald Trump`s offer to help India and Pakistan resolve the Kashmir issue sparked a major controversy after India refuted the US president`s claim that Prime Minister Narendra Modi had made a request in this regard. .